US-India military cooperation not harmonious

美印军事“牵手”貌合神离

Source
China Military Online
Editor
Li Jiayao
Time
2017-10-26

记者葛晨 杨定都

By Ge Chen and Yang Dingdu

美国国防部长马蒂斯不久前访问印度时表示,美印战略防务伙伴关系进入新阶段。今年6月,印度总理莫迪完成了他上任后第五次也是美国总统特朗普上台后的首次美国之行,访问成果也主要集中在防务领域。

BEIJING, Oct. 16 (ChinaMil) --US Secretary of Defense James Mattis said during his visit to India in September that the US-India strategic defense partnership entered a new stage. In June, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid his fifth visit to the US, which was also his first US trip after President Donald Trump took office. The goals of this visit mainly centered on the defense field.

从表面来看,美印两国军事合作近年来逐步升温,但不和谐音已经显现。美国垂涎的是印度军火订单,而印度企盼的是美国能够提供军事技术。双方在合作中关切的重点存在偏差,即使“牵手”也是貌合神离。

On the surface, the US-India military cooperation has become stronger in recent years. However, the relationship is not always harmonious. The US covets India’s arms orders while India hopes that Uncle Sam can provide it with military technology. The two sides have different aims and therefore it is not real cooperation.

合作升温

Cooperation heats up

早在2016年,美国就把印度视为“主要防务伙伴”,特朗普上台后考虑进一步发展与印度的军事联系,一时间两国在防务领域的合作愈发紧密。

The US regarded India as the "main defense partner" as early as 2016. After Trump took office, the US started considering further strengthening military ties with India and as a result, the defense ties between the two countries are getting closer.

在马蒂斯9月访印期间举行的新闻发布会上,印度国防部长西塔拉曼说,印美防务合作近年来显著增加,已经成为双方战略伙伴关系的关键支柱。马蒂斯也指出,美国重视印度在印度洋的领导地位,寻求与印度建立“有弹性的地区架构”。

India's Defense Minister Nirmala Sitharaman said at a news conference held during Mattis’ visit that the India-US defense cooperation has increased significantly in recent years, which has become a key pillar of strategic partnership between the two countries. Mattis said that the US attaches importance to India's leadership in the Indian Ocean, seeking to establish a "flexible regional structure" with India.

过去十年里,印度向美国购买了共计150亿美元的军火。双方有望签署新的战斗机大单。美国军火商洛克希德•马丁公司计划在印度建设生产线,前提是印度购买总价大约150亿美元的F16IN战机。

Over the past decade, India has purchased a total of $15 billion in arms from the US. The two sides are expected to sign a new large fighter jet deal. US arms dealer Lockheed Martin plans to build a production line in India, provided that India buys about $15 billion worth of F16IN fighters.

与洛克希德•马丁公司竞争印度订单的还有瑞典的萨博公司和美国的波音公司。为迎合印度发展本土军工的初衷,这些企业都允诺在印度建立战斗机生产线。

Saab and Boeing are also competing for the Indian deal against Lockheed Martin. In order to meet the original intention of India to develop local military industry, these companies also promised to build fighter jet production line in India.

在9月底的访问中,马蒂斯的另一大目的是向印度出售“海上卫士”无人机。先前媒体报道,印度海军考虑从美国采购至少22架“海上卫士”。

Another major objective of Mattis’ visit to India in September was to sell maritime Guardian UAV to India. According to previous media reports, the Indian Navy considered buying at least 22 maritime Guardian UAVs from the US.

分歧显露

Differences emerge

美印的防务合作真的亲密无间吗?分析人士认为,印度看重的是与美方的军事技术合作,而美国重视的是其在南亚的多重利益。

Is the US-India defense cooperation really close? Analysts believe that India values the military and technical cooperation with the US while the US attaches importance to its multiple interests in South Asia.

资深军事评论员马尧认为,美方积极拉拢印度的背后是对地缘政治的考量。美国认为,促进美印两国军方建立更直接的双边联系,有利于增进美国在南亚地区的利益。在这种思路指导下,美国近年来加强了与印度的军事合作,甚至愿意向其提供航母核动力及舰载机。

Senior military commentator Ma Yao believes that the US has geopolitical considerations to actively attract India. The US believes that the promotion of more direct bilateral ties between US and Indian armed forces is conducive to enhancing the interests of the US in South Asia. Based on this thinking, the US has strengthened military cooperation with India in recent years. The US is even willing to provide nuclear power technology of aircraft carrier and carrier-borne aircraft.

然而,印度在合作中却有另一番考虑。新上任的印度女国防部长西塔拉曼在宣誓就职时说,她的重要目标是实现国防部门的“印度制造”。“印度制造”是印度总理莫迪主推的政策之一,希望能在印度本土制造战斗机、潜艇等,减少对外国军火的依赖。

However, India has other concerns in such cooperation. The newly appointed Sitharaman said at the time of her swearing that her goal was to achieve the "Made in India" in the defense sector. "Made in India" is one of India's prime minister's main policy priorities in an effort to build fighter jets and submarines in India and to reduce dependence on foreign arms.

印度Zee网站9月20日发文指出,美国军工企业为拿下巨额协议,愿意在印度组建生产线,但这些企业希望印度作出坚定的保证,不会让它们失去专利技术。

India's Zee news website said on September 20 that the US military companies are willing to set up production lines in India to win big deals. But these companies want India to make a firm guarantee to protect their patents.

马尧认为,提供军火成品是一回事,转让技术专利是另一回事,因为在美国看来,向印度单纯出售武器而不转让相关技术,实际上加强了印度对美国的军事依赖,这种依赖可以使美国在对印关系中占据优势和主动;而如果印度获得足够的军事技术,那么美国的地位将因此遭到削弱。

Ma Yao believes that the delivery of military products is one thing; the transfer of technology patent is another matter. For the US, selling weapons and not transferring the relevant technology strengthens India's military dependence on the US. As a result, such dependence can provide the US with advantage and dominance in the US-India relations. If India gets enough military technology, then the status of the US will be weakened.

合作掣肘

Constraints in cooperation

马尧认为,美国向印度提供军火只是将其作为控制和拉拢的一种手段,如果向印转让军事技术,将不利于美国达到这一目的。

Ma Yao argues that providing arms to India is only a means of control and win for the US. The transfer of military technology to India will not help the US achieve this goal.

首先,双方在地缘政治领域的利益存在冲突。印度洋是当今世界海权体系的轴心地带,而印度是印度洋沿岸最强大的国家,并拥有一支强大的海军。

First, there is a conflict between the interests of both sides in the geopolitical field. The Indian Ocean is the axis of the world's maritime system, and India, with a strong navy, is the most powerful country on the Indian Ocean.

印度海军建设的目标是,从当前的近海防御和区域威慑思想转向远洋进攻战略,通过重点发展战略核潜艇和航空母舰来建立可靠的海基核威慑能力,努力打造一支力量均衡、结构合理、具备相当威慑力的现代蓝水海军;在控制整个印度洋的基础上,印度希望逐步将战略利益延伸至西起波斯湾、东至南海、南抵非洲的广大海域。这无疑与当今世界海洋霸权国家——美国的地缘政治目标相抵触。

The goal of the Indian Navy is to shift from the current coastal defense and regional deterrence to the oceanic offensive strategy. Through the development of strategic nuclear submarines and aircraft carriers, India aims to establish a reliable sea-based nuclear deterrent capability, and strive to build a balanced modern blue water navy with a reasonable structure and considerable deterrence. Based on the control of the entire Indian Ocean, India hopes to gradually extend the strategic interests to the Gulf, the South China Sea and Africa's vast waters. This undoubtedly contradicts the geopolitical goals of today's world maritime hegemonic state, the US.

其次,双方军事工业发展水平差异太大。武器装备在投入使用一段时间后需要进行保障。印度的军工基础比较薄弱,而美式装备既复杂又精密。购买美式装备后,印度在保障方面可能会受制于美国。

Second, there is a huge difference in the level of military industry development between India and the US. Arms require maintenance after some period of use. India's military manufacturing is relatively weak, and American equipment is complex and sophisticated. In terms of maintenance, India may be subject to the control of the US if it purchases American arms.

 

Related News

Continue...