UK back to"aircraft carrier club"

英国重回“航母俱乐部”

Source
China Military Online
Editor
Li Jiayao
Time
2017-12-05

近日,英国国防部宣布,英国皇家海军新航空母舰“伊丽莎白女王”号将于下月7日服役。这意味着英国海军即将结束历时3年多无现役航母的尴尬,重新回到“航母俱乐部”。

BEIJING, Nov. 23 (ChinaMil) -- The British Defense Ministry recently announced that the British Royal Navy's new aircraft carrier Queen Elizabeth will be commissioned on December 7, which will put an end to the 3-year-long absence of aircraft carrier in the British Navy and put the UK back in the "carrier club".

皇家海军最大航母

Largest aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy

“伊丽莎白女王”号是伊丽莎白女王级航母的首舰,于2014年7月下水。它还有一艘姊妹舰“威尔士亲王”号,目前尚在建造中。

Queen Elizabeth is the first Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier, which entered water in July 2014. Its sister carrier Prince of Wales is still under construction.

虽然采用传统动力,但“伊丽莎白女王”号无疑将成为英国皇家海军未来的主力。它也以6.5万吨的满载排水量,创造了英国海军航母吨位的最高纪录。

Although it uses traditional power, the Queen Elizabeth will doubtlessly be the main force of the British Royal Navy in the future with its new carrier tonnage record of 65,000-ton full load displacement.

据报道,“伊丽莎白女王”号全长280米,最高航速25节。它首创“滑跳”式甲板结合电磁弹射器的新概念,主力F-35B战斗机可使用弹射方式升空。由于预算不足,“伊丽莎白女王”号没有采用核动力系统,而使用了柴油动力系统。

It is reported that Queen Elizabeth has the full length of 280m and maximal speed of 25 knots. It created the new concept of combining "ski jump" deck with electromagnetic catapult, and the F-35B fighter plane can make catapult-assisted take-off (C.A.T.O.). Queen Elizabeth adopts the diesel power system instead of nuclear power system because of inadequate budget.

“伊丽莎白女王”号最多可搭载40架F-35B战斗机。两栖突击模式下,可搭载18架“梅林”运输直升机、6架CH-47“奇努克”运输直升机、6架AH-64“阿帕奇”攻击直升机,或直接装载25架“奇努克”运输直升机。

The new aircraft carrier is able to carry 40 F-35B fighter planes. On amphibious assault mode, it can carry 18 Merlin transport helicopters, six CH-47 Chinook transport helicopters and six AH-64 Apache attack helicopters, or directly carry 25 Chinook transport helicopters.

不追求制空能力

Air control capability not the goal

军事分析人士认为,伊丽莎白女王级航母并不追求夺取全面制空权,而是以攻击能力为主。

Military analysts said that the Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier doesn't pursue overall air supremacy but is focused on assault capability.

资深军事评论员张浩认为,伊丽莎白女王级航母强调对地攻击能力,要求达到对陆攻击为主作战的演变,其目的就是与北约国家相配合,依靠北约的体系,执行对外干涉作战。

Zhang Hao, a senior military commentator, said Queen Elizabeth-class aircraft carrier emphasizes ground attack capability and makes ground attack its main combat form. The purpose is to cooperate with the NATO members and execute external operations based on the NATO system.

张浩介绍说,在无敌级航母时代,英国将舰队防空任务交给42型驱逐舰,目前英国海军则将防空任务交给了45型驱逐舰。其实英国海军一直有航母舰队制空依靠驱逐舰的历史,英国战后第一代大型航母鹰级就是依靠郡级驱逐舰来完成防空任务,但驱逐舰的制空能力显然不如航母。

According to Zhang Hao, in the age of Invincible class aircraft carrier, Britain relied on the type 42 destroyers for fleet air defense, but today the British Navy relies on the type 45 destroyers for air defense. This has been the tradition in the British navy. After WWII, Britain's first-generation Eagle large aircraft carrier relied on the County-class destroyers for air defense, but they were obviously inferior to aircraft carrier in air control capability.

稍许挽回颜面

Saving some face

2014年8月,英国唯一现役航母“卓越”号退役,使这个曾经的海洋强国陷入无航母可用的尴尬境地。直到如今“伊丽莎白女王”号即将服役,英国海军才多少挽回些颜面。

Britain's only in-service aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious was decommissioned in August 2014, and this old maritime power found itself in the awkward position of having no carrier to use. The British Navy only saved some face with the upcoming commissioning of the Queen Elizabeth.

英国是世界上第一个设计航母的国家,曾经拥有光辉级、巨人级、庄严级、半人马级等多种型号航母,在世界航母发展史上拥有不可忽视的地位。

The UK is the first country in the world that designed the aircraft carrier. It used to have a wide range of carrier types, including the Illustrious class, Colossus class, Majestic class and Centaur class, and it occupies a significant position in the world history of carrier development.

分析人士认为,英国海军之所以落到无现役航母可用的田地,和工党从1997年至2010年连续3届执政有很大关联。工党在建造航母上态度消极,在其执政13年间,皇家海军3艘无敌级航母确定退役,而新航母的建造计划却推进缓慢。

According to analysts, the awkward situation of the British Navy is closely related with the continuous reign of the Labour Party from 1997 to 2010. The Labour Party is very passive in building aircraft carrier. During its 13-year reign, the Royal Navy's three Invincible class carriers were decommissioned, but the plan for building new carriers made almost zero progress.

财政压力是造成上述状况的另一个原因。张浩说,面对财政状况的不断恶化,英国即便认识到航母的重要性,新的航母计划也难以为继,甚至有消息说,英国海军一度打算将伊丽莎白女王级二号舰“威尔士亲王”号建造完成后封存,只保留一艘航母服役。

Another reason for this situation is fiscal pressure. Zhang Hao said giving the continuously worsening fiscal situation, the new carrier plan is hard to become reality even if the UK realizes the importance of aircraft carrier. There is even news that the British Navy once planned to shelve the carrier Prince of Wales when it's completed and only keep one carrier in service.

 

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